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Monday, 14 February 2011

Chambered Tomb Older Than Egyptian Pyramids





Barclodiad y Gawres, gan edrych allan o’r beddrod ar hyd y cyntedd mynediad.
Barclodiad y Gawres, looking out of the tomb down the entrance passage. Image/Llun: DS2010_580_003 / NPRN: 95545
Barclodiad y Gawres, Môn
Beddrod siambr Neolithig yw Barclodiad y Gawres ac fe saif ar graig ar frig pentir Mynydd Cnwc uwchlaw Porth Trecastell. Cloddiwyd y beddrod ym 1952-3 ac ers hynny mae ef wedi’i gyfnerthu er mwyn i’r cyhoedd gael mynediad iddo o fewn twmpath modern sydd â haen o wydr ar ei ben.

Codwyd y beddrod cynhanesyddol hwn 5-6000 o flynyddoedd yn ôl ac mae’n hŷn, felly, na phyramidiau’r Aifft. Yn wreiddiol, roedd twmpath mawr o dywyrch rhyw 27m o ddiamedr drosto. Ar yr ochr ogleddol roedd cwrt blaen a drôi at i mewn, ac oddi yno ceid cyntedd 7.0m o hyd i mewn i siambr ganolog afreolaidd ei siâp. Oddi ar y gofod canolog hwnnw ceid tair siambr lai o faint a roddai gynllun croesffurf i’r beddrod. Dros y siambrau bach hynny, o leiaf, roedd slabiau mawr o gerrig nad oes ond un ohonyn nhw’n dal yn ei le. Wrth siambr y gorllewin roedd estyniad bach lle cafwyd hyd i olion dau ddyn a gawsai eu hamlosgi. Ar gerrig pen siambr y dwyrain a siambr y gorllewin ac ar dair o gerrig pen mewnol y cyntedd gwelir patrymau pigedig haniaethol ar ffurf igam-ogam, losenau a llinellau troellog yn nhraddodiad y gelfyddyd fegalithig sy’n gyffredin ar greigiau beddrodau Dyffryn Boyne yn Iwerddon, gan gynnwys beddrod enwog Newgrange, a beddrodau siambr yn Llydaw a Sbaen.

Wrth gloddio yn y siambr ganolog cafwyd hyd i olion tân hirhoedlog. Cawsai hwnnw ei ddiffodd â ‘stiw’ neu ddiod hud, ac yna ag amryw o gregyn meheryn a cherrig mân. Ond esboniad arall a gynigiwyd o’r casgliad anarferol hwnnw o famaliaid a physgod go anfwytadwy oedd mai ysgarthion dyfrgi a all fod wedi byw ymhlith adfeilion y beddrod oedd yno.

Effaith anffodus y fandaliaeth a fu yno’n ddiweddar yw bod y beddrod dan glo. Ond oherwydd technoleg ffotograffig newydd a thechnoleg sganio-â-laser, bydd modd gweld gogoniannau’r cerfiadau cynhanesyddol y tu mewn i’r beddrod cyn hir. Daeth gwaith ymchwil tîm o Brifysgol Bryste yn 2005 a 2006 o hyd i ragor o gelfyddyd bigedig gynhanesyddol ar Garreg 7 yng nghilfach chwith neu ddwyreiniol y siambr ac mae hynny’n dangos bod gan y beddrod hynafol hwn ragor o gyfrinachau newydd i’w datgelu.

Cysylltau:


Barclodiad y Gawres, y cyntedd mynediad.
Barclodiad y Gawres, entrance passage. Image/Llun: DS2010_580_002 / NPRN: 95545
Barclodiad y Gawres, Anglesey
Barclodiad y Gawres is a Neolithic chambered tomb set on a crag at the highest point of the Mynydd Cnwc headland overlooking Trecastle Bay. The tomb was excavated in 1952-3 and has since been consolidated and presented for public access within a modern glass-topped mound.

The prehistoric tomb, built between 5-6000 years ago and older than the Egyptian pyramids, was originally covered by a great turf based mound some 27m in diameter. On the north side was an inturned forecourt from which a 7.0m long passage led into the irregular central chamber. Three smaller chambers branched off this central space producing a cruciform plan. These smaller chambers at least were roofed by great stone slabs, only one of which survives. The west chamber had a smaller annex within which the cremated remains of two men were found. The end stones of the east and west chamber and three of the stones in the inner end of the passage were decorated with abstract pecked patterns of zig-zags, lozenges and spirals, in a tradition of megalithic rock art common among the tombs of the Boyne Valley in Ireland, including the famous Newgrange, and chambered tombs in Brittany and Spain.

Traces of a long lasting fire were found during excavations in the central chamber. This had been quenched by a 'stew' or magical potion, followed by a quantity of limpet shells and pebbles. However, alternative explanations offered for this unusual deposit of largely inedible mammals and fish is that it is faeces from an otter who may have been resident in the derelict tomb.

Due to recent vandalism the tomb is unfortunately kept locked, but through new photographic and laser-scanning technology it will soon be possible to see the glories of the prehistoric carvings inside the tomb once again. Research in 2005 and 2006 by a team from Bristol University discovered further pecked prehistoric rock art on Stone 7, in the left hand or eastern recess of the chamber, showing that this ancient tomb still had new secrets to reveal.

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BBC2 Wales - Hidden Histories - Series 3

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